Which Senators And Representatives Vote In Favor Of Democracy?

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There is a growing strain of illiberalism both within the Republican Party and among Republican voters. But what does that illiberalism actually look like among elected members in Congress?

Quantifying politicians’ commitments to upholding democracy isn’t easy. Even defining “democracy” is complicatedscholars disagree on its exact definition — let alone trying to establish how closely politicians or parties adhere to democratic principles. There’s no ongoing survey of how strongly elected members of Congress believe in democratic principles, for instance, and it’s not clear what such a survey would even tell us, given that politicians (and their staffers) are often masters at spin. But just like aggregating politicians’ votes can tell us something about where they fall ideologically on economic or social policies, one thing we can do is look at how members of Congress vote when issues of democracy are brought to the floor.

Of course, the catch here is that matters of democracy are rarely brought for a floor vote. “Most aspects of democracy are not up for debate in Congress in any given year,” said Michael Coppedge, a political scientist at the University of Notre Dame and one of the principal investigators at Varieties of Democracy. That’s an important caveat because the comprehensiveness of such a metric is limited by what Congress actually votes on. “There’s a lot that’s taken for granted that’s essential to what democracy is,” Coppedge said. “Instead, what we get our votes on [are] skirmishes on the periphery of what democracy means.”

One more complication is that there is no single agreed-upon list of what are (or aren’t) issues of democracy. Never mind what the more-democratic position is on each issue.

Bearing all of that in mind, I’ve built two different metrics to help us understand a legislator’s stance on democracy. First is a minimalist definition of democracy, limited to basic requirements like free and, in theory, fair elections and other measures that help safeguard democracy. Second is a more expansive definition, which contains everything in the first category, but also includes bills that expand civil liberties and who has political power. That way, we can see where politicians converge on these two metrics — and where they differ.

First, the most bare-bones definition: “issues of electoral democracy.” Included in this definition are the most basic requirements of any functioning democracy, like free elections and freedom of the press. And while most of these issues typically don’t come up for congressional votes, some did this year — most notably, the counting of electoral votes from Pennsylvania and Arizona in the 2020 election, usually a ceremonial event that this year faced objections from members of Congress and coincided with the Jan. 6 assault on the Capitol. Four other types of bills fall into this category: a bill that would have set up an independent commission to investigate the Jan. 6 attack;1 when that failed to pass the Senate, a bill to create a select committee to investigate the Jan. 6 attack on the Capitol;2 a bill to increase the independence of government oversight of the executive branch;3 and the second bill to impeach former President Donald Trump,4 as he was charged with inciting “an insurrection against the government of the United States.” We realize that bill was more political than the others in this category — and we did debate whether to include it — but ultimately we decided that being too political wasn’t a good reason for exclusion, especially as the bill did deal with a core democratic principle: the peaceful transfer of power in America’s elections. (For what it’s worth, including this vote did not meaningfully change the results.)

How politicians vote on these issues doesn’t just reflect the extent to which they back President Biden’s policies, which FiveThirtyEight tracks via its Biden Score metric. Though party lines are important here, this stripped-down metric of democracy still shows substantial variation — particularly among Republicans.5 On the other hand, Democrats are mostly clustered together in the upper-right hand corner.

Take Republican Sens. Susan Collins, Lisa Murkowski, Bill Cassidy, Mitt Romney and Ben Sasse. All five of them opposed the objections to counting electoral votes in both Pennsylvania and Arizona and supported the National Commission to investigate Jan. 6 — all three of the pro-democracy bills the Senate voted on in this category, even though they differ quite a bit in the extent to which they support Biden’s agenda. Similarly, in the House, Republican Reps. Brian Fitzpatrick, Tom Reed, John Katko, Adam Kinzinger and Liz Cheney all voted largely in favor of the pro-democracy measures in front of the House, even though Cheney rarely votes with Biden otherwise.

On the other end of the spectrum, you can see which representatives have voted against both Biden and the bare-bones pro-democracy measures Congress has taken up. For instance, Sens. Josh Hawley, Ted Cruz, Tommy Tuberville, Roger Marshall and Cindy Hyde-Smith have all voted against the democratic position every single time, even though Hyde-Smith tends to vote with Biden markedly more than the others.

But this bare-bones metric is, of course, a fairly narrow definition of what it means to live in a democracy, which is why I created a second metric that also includes bills that try to create a more expansive and inclusive democracy. Using legislative scorecards from organizations like the American Civil Liberties Union, the government watchdog group Common Cause and the nonprofit research organization Vote Smart, I looked at all of the other bills that Congress brought to the floor this year that could also be considered key to a functioning democracy, in addition to the ones I’ve already mentioned.6 Bills that fall into this second category include:

Bills aimed at expanding civil liberties, like the rights of groups like women — in addition to bills focused on hate crimes, like the COVID-19 Hate Crimes Act; expanding immigration rights, like the American Dream and Promise Act; increasing transparency and accountability in policing, like the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act; and LGBTQ equality, like the Equality Act; Bills that expand voting rights and access, like the For the People Act and the John Lewis Voting Rights Advancement Act;Bills addressing the historical legacy of slavery in the U.S. like making Juneteenth a federal holiday or removing confederate statues from the Capitol. (Groups like Vote Smart placed these bills in the “Civil Liberties and Civil Rights” and “Constitution” categories; these measures recognize the role slavery had in entrenching inequality in the U.S.)7

Interestingly, the overall picture doesn’t change that much when you look at this fuller set of bills — although partisan differences are somewhat starker. While the bare-bones metric had a few Republicans on par with Democrats, this is no longer the case: There are no Republicans who are more supportive than Democrats of the more expansive definition of democracy.

In the Senate, it’s still Collins, Murkowski, Romney, Sasse, and Cassidy that lead Republicans on this metric — supporting almost all of the bills that fall in this second metric. The notable exception is the For the People Act, which no Senate Republican voted in favor of. Meanwhile, we saw more movement in the House, which voted on more “small-d” democratic bills and whose democracy score increasingly correlated with the Biden score. However, there were still some Republicans who supported a majority of these more expansive democratic positions, such as Fitzpatrick, Reed, Katko and Kinzinger, even though most of them vote with Biden less than half of the time. Cheney, however, fell on this more expansive metric in large part because she didn’t support legislation like a bill to prohibit discrimination based on sex, sexual orientation and gender identity, the For the People Act and the Washington, D.C. Admission Act.

And this brings us to an important point. As this more expansive definition of democracy shows, many of these issues have become polarized by party. That can make it hard to disentangle anti-democratic politics from partisan politics, according to Gretchen Helmke, a professor at the University of Rochester and one of the founders of Bright Line Watch, a group of political scientists that monitors democracy and threats to it. H.R. 1, the For The People Act, is an instructive example: Democrats have pushed this bill as small-d democratic because it makes it easier for people to exercise their right to vote, but they also first introduced it in 2019 as a statement of what the party stood for, when it had no chance of passing a Republican-controlled Senate and White House. So have Republicans voted against this bill as part of a stance against voting rights, or have they opposed it because they worry it delivers Democrats a sweeping legislative victory? There is no one answer here. In nearly every bill we looked at in the fuller metric, it was very hard to separate the politics from the policy.

Of course, this metric is not based on a random subset of possible issues. Democrats, who currently control both houses of Congress, might be strategic in what they choose to move forward, political scientist Jake Grumbach noted. Grumbach, a professor of political science at the University of Washington and the author of a recent paper tracking the state of liberal democracy at the state level, cautioned that Democrats might want to avoid difficult decisions for their members by introducing bills that could divide the party, leading them to keep bills off the floor on which the party doesn’t agree — a form of selection bias that plagues all studies of congressional voting behavior.8 We should therefore be careful about drawing any conclusions about the liberal and illiberal tendencies of the elected officials in our sample. But to see where your representative or senators fall, check out the full set of scores for all legislators on this metric in the table below:

pro-democracy percentage
chamber
legislator
party
bare-bones
more expansive
House
Alma Adams
Dem.
100.0%
100.0%
House
Pete Aguilar
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Colin Allred
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jake Auchincloss
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Cindy Axne
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Nanette Diaz Barragan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Karen Bass
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Joyce Beatty
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ami Bera
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Don Beyer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sanford D. Bishop Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Earl Blumenauer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lisa Blunt Rochester
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Suzanne Bonamici
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Carolyn Bourdeaux
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jamaal Bowman
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Brendan Boyle
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Anthony Brown
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Julia Brownley
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Cori Bush
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Cheri Bustos
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
G.K. Butterfield
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Salud Carbajal
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Tony Cardenas
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Andre Carson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Troy A. Carter
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Matt Cartwright
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ed Case
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sean Casten
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Joaquin Castro
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Judy Chu
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
David Cicilline
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Katherine Clark
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Yvette D. Clarke
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Emanuel Cleaver
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
James E. Clyburn
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Steve Cohen
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Gerald E. Connolly
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jim Cooper
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
J. Luis Correa
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Joe Courtney
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Angie Craig
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Charlie Crist
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jason Crow
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Henry Cuellar
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sharice Davids
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Danny K. Davis
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Madeleine Dean
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Peter DeFazio
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Diana DeGette
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Rosa L. DeLauro
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Suzan DelBene
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Antonio Delgado
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Val Demings
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mark DeSaulnier
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ted Deutch
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Debbie Dingell
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mike Doyle
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Veronica Escobar
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Anna G. Eshoo
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Adriano Espaillat
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Dwight Evans
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lizzie Pannill Fletcher
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Bill Foster
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lois Frankel
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ruben Gallego
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
John Garamendi
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jesus “Chuy” Garcia
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sylvia R. Garcia
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jimmy Gomez
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Vicente Gonzalez
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Josh Gottheimer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Al Green
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Raul Grijalva
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Josh Harder
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jahana Hayes
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Brian Higgins
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jim Himes
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Steven A. Horsford
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Chrissy Houlahan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Steny H. Hoyer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jared Huffman
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sheila Jackson Lee
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Sara Jacobs
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Pramila Jayapal
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Hakeem Jeffries
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Eddie Bernice Johnson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Hank Johnson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mondaire Jones
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kaiali’i Kahele
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Marcy Kaptur
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
William Keating
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ro Khanna
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Daniel Kildee
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Derek Kilmer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Andy Kim
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ann Kirkpatrick
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Raja Krishnamoorthi
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ann Kuster
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Conor Lamb
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jim Langevin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Rick Larsen
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
John B. Larson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Brenda Lawrence
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Al Lawson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Barbara Lee
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Susie Lee
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Teresa Leger Fernandez
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Andy Levin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mike Levin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ted Lieu
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Zoe Lofgren
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Alan Lowenthal
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Elaine Luria
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Stephen F. Lynch
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Tom Malinowski
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Carolyn Maloney
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kathy E. Manning
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Doris O. Matsui
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lucy McBath
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Betty McCollum
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
A. Donald McEachin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
James McGovern
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jerry McNerney
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Gregory W. Meeks
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Grace Meng
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kweisi Mfume
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Gwen Moore
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Joseph D. Morelle
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Seth Moulton
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Frank J. Mrvan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jerrold Nadler
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Grace Napolitano
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Richard E. Neal
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Joe Neguse
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Marie Newman
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Donald Norcross
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Tom O’Halleran
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ilhan Omar
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Frank Pallone Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jimmy Panetta
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Chris Pappas
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Bill Pascrell Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Donald Payne Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Nancy Pelosi
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ed Perlmutter
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Scott Peters
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Dean Phillips
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Chellie Pingree
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mark Pocan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Katie Porter
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ayanna Pressley
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
David Price
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mike Quigley
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jamie Raskin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kathleen Rice
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Deborah K. Ross
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lucille Roybal-Allard
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Raul Ruiz
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Bobby L. Rush
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Tim Ryan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
John P. Sarbanes
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mary Gay Scanlon
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jan Schakowsky
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Adam Schiff
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Bradley Schneider
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kurt Schrader
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kim Schrier
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Robert C. Scott
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Terri A. Sewell
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Brad Sherman
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mikie Sherrill
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Albio Sires
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Elissa Slotkin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Adam Smith
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Darren Soto
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Abigail Spanberger
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jackie Speier
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Melanie A. Stansbury
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Greg Stanton
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Haley Stevens
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Marilyn Strickland
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Thomas Suozzi
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Eric Swalwell
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Mike Thompson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Dina Titus
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Paul D. Tonko
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Norma Torres
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Ritchie Torres
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lori Trahan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Lauren Underwood
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Juan Vargas
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Marc Veasey
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Filemon Vela
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Nydia M. Velazquez
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Debbie Wasserman Schultz
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Maxine Waters
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Bonnie Watson Coleman
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Peter Welch
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Jennifer Wexton
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Susan Wild
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Nikema Williams
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Frederica Wilson
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
John A. Yarmuth
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Tammy Baldwin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Michael F. Bennet
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Richard Blumenthal
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Cory A. Booker
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Sherrod Brown
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Maria Cantwell
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Benjamin L. Cardin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Thomas R. Carper
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Robert P. Casey Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Christopher A. Coons
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Catherine Cortez Masto
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Tammy Duckworth
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Richard J. Durbin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Dianne Feinstein
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Kirsten E. Gillibrand
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Margaret Wood Hassan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Martin Heinrich
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
John W. Hickenlooper
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Mazie K. Hirono
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Tim Kaine
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Mark Kelly
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Angus S. King Jr.
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Patrick J. Leahy
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Ben R. Lujan
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Joe Manchin
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Edward J. Markey
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Robert Menendez
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jeff Merkley
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Christopher Murphy
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jon Ossoff
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Alex Padilla
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Gary C. Peters
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jack Reed
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jacky Rosen
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Bernie Sanders
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Brian Schatz
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Charles E. Schumer
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jeanne Shaheen
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Debbie Stabenow
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Jon Tester
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Chris Van Hollen
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Mark R. Warner
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Raphael G. Warnock
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Elizabeth Warren
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Sheldon Whitehouse
Dem.
100.0
100.0
Senate
Ron Wyden
Dem.
100.0
100.0
House
Kathy Castor
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
Jim Costa
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
Lloyd Doggett
Dem.
91.7
97.4
House
Robin Kelly
Dem.
91.7
97.4
House
Sean Patrick Maloney
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
Stephanie Murphy
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
Linda Sanchez
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
David Scott
Dem.
91.7
97.4
House
Mark Takano
Dem.
100.0
97.4
House
David Trone
Dem.
91.7
97.4
House
Ron Kind
Dem.
100.0
94.7
House
Bennie G. Thompson
Dem.
100.0
94.7
Senate
Amy Klobuchar
Dem.
100.0
92.9
Senate
Patty Murray
Dem.
87.5
92.9
Senate
Kyrsten Sinema
Dem.
87.5
92.9
Senate
Tina Smith
Dem.
100.0
92.9
House
Rashida Tlaib
Dem.
83.3
92.1
House
Jared Golden
Dem.
91.7
86.8
Senate
Bill Cassidy
Rep.
100.0
71.4
Senate
Susan Collins
Rep.
100.0
71.4
Senate
Lisa Murkowski
Rep.
100.0
71.4
Senate
Mitt Romney
Rep.
100.0
71.4
Senate
Ben Sasse
Rep.
100.0
71.4
House
Brian Fitzpatrick
Rep.
66.7
68.4
Senate
Richard Burr
Rep.
87.5
64.3
Senate
Patrick J. Toomey
Rep.
87.5
64.3
House
John Katko
Rep.
83.3
57.9
House
Adam Kinzinger
Rep.
83.3
57.9
House
Tom Reed
Rep.
66.7
57.9
Senate
Rob Portman
Rep.
75.0
57.1
Senate
Mike Rounds
Rep.
62.5
57.1
House
Fred Upton
Rep.
66.7
52.6
Senate
Roy Blunt
Rep.
62.5
50.0
Senate
Mike Braun
Rep.
62.5
50.0
Senate
James M. Inhofe
Rep.
62.5
50.0
Senate
James E. Risch
Rep.
62.5
50.0
Senate
Richard C. Shelby
Rep.
62.5
50.0
House
Don Bacon
Rep.
50.0
47.4
House
Jaime Herrera Beutler
Rep.
66.7
47.4
House
Chris Smith
Rep.
50.0
47.4
Senate
John Barrasso
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Marsha Blackburn
Rep.
62.5
42.9
Senate
John Boozman
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Shelley Moore Capito
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
John Cornyn
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Tom Cotton
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Kevin Cramer
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Mike Crapo
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Steve Daines
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Joni Ernst
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Deb Fischer
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Lindsey Graham
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Chuck Grassley
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Bill Hagerty
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
John Hoeven
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Ron Johnson
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
James Lankford
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Mitch McConnell
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Jerry Moran
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Marco Rubio
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Tim Scott
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Dan Sullivan
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
John Thune
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Thom Tillis
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Roger F. Wicker
Rep.
50.0
42.9
Senate
Todd Young
Rep.
50.0
42.9
House
Liz Cheney
Rep.
83.3
42.1
House
Jeff Fortenberry
Rep.
50.0
42.1
House
Andrew R. Garbarino
Rep.
50.0
42.1
House
Tony Gonzales
Rep.
50.0
42.1
House
Anthony Gonzalez
Rep.
66.7
42.1
House
Trey Hollingsworth
Rep.
50.0
42.1
House
Peter Meijer
Rep.
66.7
42.1
House
Dan Newhouse
Rep.
66.7
42.1
House
David G. Valadao
Rep.
50.0
41.2
House
David Joyce
Rep.
41.7
39.5
House
Don Young
Rep.
33.3
39.5
House
Troy Balderson
Rep.
33.3
36.8
House
John R. Curtis
Rep.
50.0
36.8
House
Rodney Davis
Rep.
50.0
36.8
House
Carlos A. Gimenez
Rep.
16.7
36.8
House
French Hill
Rep.
50.0
36.8
House
Ashley Hinson
Rep.
33.3
36.8
House
Michael T. McCaul
Rep.
33.3
36.8
House
Blake D. Moore
Rep.
50.0
36.8
House
Pete Stauber
Rep.
33.3
36.8
House
Ann Wagner
Rep.
33.3
36.8
Senate
Mike Lee
Rep.
50.0
35.7
Senate
Rand Paul
Rep.
50.0
35.7
House
Maria Elvira Salazar
Rep.
25.0
35.3
House
Young Kim
Rep.
25.0
34.2
House
Mike Simpson
Rep.
50.0
34.2
House
Mark Amodei
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Cliff Bentz
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Gus M. Bilirakis
Rep.
16.7
31.6
House
Mario Diaz-Balart
Rep.
0.0
31.6
House
Tom Emmer
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Mike Gallagher
Rep.
41.7
31.6
House
Brett S. Guthrie
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Bill Huizenga
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Dusty Johnson
Rep.
50.0
31.6
House
Robert E. Latta
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
David McKinley
Rep.
50.0
31.6
House
Mariannette Miller-Meeks
Rep.
50.0
31.6
House
John Moolenaar
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Victoria Spartz
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Bryan Steil
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Van Taylor
Rep.
50.0
31.6
House
Michael Turner
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Brad Wenstrup
Rep.
33.3
31.6
House
Steve Womack
Rep.
50.0
31.6
House
Vern Buchanan
Rep.
33.3
28.9
House
Dan Crenshaw
Rep.
33.3
28.9
House
Gregory F. Murphy
Rep.
25.0
28.9
Senate
John Kennedy
Rep.
25.0
28.6
Senate
Cynthia M. Lummis
Rep.
25.0
28.6
Senate
Rick Scott
Rep.
25.0
28.6
House
Larry Bucshon
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
Steve Chabot
Rep.
16.7
26.3
House
James Comer
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
Randy Feenstra
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
A. Drew Ferguson
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
Glenn Grothman
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
Chris Jacobs
Rep.
16.7
26.3
House
Nicole Malliotakis
Rep.
0.0
26.3
House
Cathy McMorris Rodgers
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
David Schweikert
Rep.
16.7
26.3
House
Chris Stewart
Rep.
16.7
26.3
House
Jeff Van Drew
Rep.
0.0
26.3
House
Michael Waltz
Rep.
33.3
26.3
House
Kay Granger
Rep.
25.0
23.7
House
Darrell E. Issa
Rep.
16.7
23.7
House
Roger Williams
Rep.
16.7
23.7
House
Kelly Armstrong
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Andy Barr
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Stephanie I. Bice
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Mike Bost
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Kevin Brady
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Michael Burgess
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Ken Calvert
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Russ Fulcher
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Mike Garcia
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Garret Graves
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Richard Hudson
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Bill Johnson
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
David Kustoff
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Darin LaHood
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Nancy Mace
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Kevin McCarthy
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Burgess Owens
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Steve Scalise
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Austin Scott
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Lloyd Smucker
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Michelle Steel
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Elise Stefanik
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Daniel Webster
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Bruce Westerman
Rep.
33.3
21.1
House
Joe Wilson
Rep.
0.0
21.1
House
Robert J. Wittman
Rep.
16.7
21.1
House
Claudia Tenney
Rep.
0.0
18.8
House
Ken Buck
Rep.
25.0
18.4
House
Bob Gibbs
Rep.
0.0
18.4
House
Patrick T. McHenry
Rep.
33.3
18.4
House
Dan Meuser
Rep.
16.7
18.4
House
Greg Pence
Rep.
16.7
18.4
House
Chip Roy
Rep.
50.0
18.4
House
Glenn W. Thompson
Rep.
16.7
18.4
House
Tim Walberg
Rep.
8.3
18.4
House
Julia Letlow
Rep.
0.0
18.2
House
Jack Bergman
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Buddy Carter
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Michelle Fischbach
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Chuck Fleischmann
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Virginia Foxx
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Louie Gohmert
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Michael Guest
Rep.
25.0
15.8
House
Jim Hagedorn
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Fred Keller
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Mike Kelly
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Debbie Lesko
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Billy Long
Rep.
8.3
15.8
House
Frank Lucas
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Brian Mast
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Mary E. Miller
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Alex Mooney
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Markwayne Mullin
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Devin Nunes
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Jay Obernolte
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Guy Reschenthaler
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Tom Rice
Rep.
33.3
15.8
House
Harold Rogers
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Adrian Smith
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Jason Smith
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Beth Van Duyne
Rep.
16.7
15.8
House
Jackie Walorski
Rep.
0.0
15.8
House
Lee Zeldin
Rep.
0.0
15.8
Senate
Ted Cruz
Rep.
0.0
14.3
Senate
Cindy Hyde-Smith
Rep.
0.0
14.3
Senate
Roger Marshall
Rep.
0.0
14.3
Senate
Tommy Tuberville
Rep.
0.0
14.3
House
Jodey Arrington
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Jim Banks
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Michael Cloud
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Ron Estes
Rep.
0.0
13.2
House
Bob Good
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Morgan Griffith
Rep.
0.0
13.2
House
Vicky Hartzler
Rep.
0.0
13.2
House
Yvette Herrell
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Clay Higgins
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Mike Johnson
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Jake LaTurner
Rep.
8.3
13.2
House
August Pfluger
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
John Rose
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Thomas P. Tiffany
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Randy Weber
Rep.
16.7
13.2
House
Jim Baird
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
John Carter
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Ben Cline
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Tom Cole
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Rick Crawford
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Warren Davidson
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Neal Dunn
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Pat Fallon
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Scott Fitzgerald
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
C. Scott Franklin
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Matt Gaetz
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Lance Gooden
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Sam Graves
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Jody Hice
Rep.
8.3
10.5
House
John Joyce
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Doug Lamborn
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Blaine Luetkemeyer
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Thomas Massie
Rep.
33.3
10.5
House
Lisa C. McClain
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Tom McClintock
Rep.
33.3
10.5
House
Carol Miller
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Barry Moore
Rep.
8.3
10.5
House
Troy E. Nehls
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Bill Posey
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
John Rutherford
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Pete Sessions
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
William Timmons
Rep.
0.0
10.5
House
Brian Babin
Rep.
0.0
7.9
House
Lauren Boebert
Rep.
0.0
7.9
House
Tim Burchett
Rep.
0.0
7.9
House
Scott DesJarlais
Rep.
8.3
7.9
House
Andy Harris
Rep.
8.3
7.9
House
Ronny Jackson
Rep.
16.7
7.9
House
Trent Kelly
Rep.
0.0
7.9
House
Robert B. Aderholt
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Rick Allen
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Dan Bishop
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Ted Budd
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Kat Cammack
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Jerry L. Carl
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Madison Cawthorn
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Andrew S. Clyde
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Byron Donalds
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Jeff Duncan
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Mark E. Green
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Marjorie Taylor Greene
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Diana Harshbarger
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Kevin Hern
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Jim Jordan
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Doug LaMalfa
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Barry Loudermilk
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Tracey Mann
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Steven Palazzo
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Gary Palmer
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Scott Perry
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Mike Rogers
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
David Rouzer
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Greg Steube
Rep.
0.0
5.3
House
Andy Biggs
Rep.
0.0
2.6
House
Mo Brooks
Rep.
0.0
0.0
House
Paul A. Gosar
Rep.
0.0
0.0
House
Ralph Norman
Rep.
0.0
0.0
House
Matthew M. Rosendale
Rep.
0.0
0.0
Senate
Josh Hawley
Rep.
0.0
0.0

Legislators of the 117th Congress who died, left or joined after July 1st are not included. Sens. Bernie Sanders and Angus King are independents who caucus with the Democrats.

The “bare-bones” definition includes voting on the counting of electoral votes in Pennsylvania and Arizona; a bill that would have set up an independent commission to investigate the Jan. 6 attack (H.R. 3233); a bill to create a select committee to investigate the Jan. 6 attack (House Res. 503); a bill to increase the independence of government oversight of the executive branch (H.R. 2662); and the second bill to impeach former President Donald Trump (House Res. 24).

The “more expansive” definition includes all “bare-bones” votes plus bills aimed at expanding civil liberties, bills aimed at expanding political power and voting rights and bills that address the legacy of slavery in the U.S.

Sources: VOTEVIEW, ACLU, COMMON CAUSE, VOTESMART

At this point, the core of democracy in the U.S. is not up for debate. “We’re fighting battles today over certain aspects of the democratic process, but not the core of it, for the most part,” Coppedge told me. But the fact that questions of democracy have become so clearly partisan is not good for the future of democracy. And given just how politically divided that fight has already become, it’s more important than ever to track how Congress votes on the matters of democracy that do make it to the floor.

Graphics by Ryan Best and Anna Wiederkehr.

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